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Comprehensive Care for Many Conditions

We treat many neurological conditions at San Diego Neurosurgery, including:

 

A   |   B   |   C   |   D   |   E   |   F   |   G   |   H   |   I   |   J   |   K   |   L   |   M   |   N   |   O   |   P   |   Q   |   R   |   S   |   T   |   U   |   V   |   W   |   X   |   Y   |   Z

A

Acoustic Neuroma

Benign tumor of the hearing nerve (eighth nerve). A progressively enlarging, benign tumor, usually within the internal auditory canal or hearing nerve.

Ankylosing Spinal Hyperostosis

Arthritic disorder in which bridgingosteophytes, located anteriorly and posteriorly on the vertebral body, bind two or more vertebrae together; Also know as Forestier disease.

Ankylosing Spondylitis

Stiffening or fixation of the vertebra; an inflammatory joint disease mainly affecting the spine hips, and pelvis.

Anterior Spurring

Ligament turning to bone on the anterior side of a vertebral body.

Arachnoiditis

Inflammation of the arachnoid membrane, most commonly seen within the spinal cord around the spinal cord and cauda equina.

Arthritis and Osteoarthritis

Spinal arthritis – also called degenerative joint disease – is the breakdown of the cartilage between the facet joints in the spine, leading to low back pain and/or leg pain.

B

Brachial Plexus Injury

An injury to the brachial plexus, a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spinal cord, which is housed in the spinal canal of the vertebral column (or spine), to the shoulder, arm and hand.

Brown-Sequard’s Syndrome

Loss of sensation of touch, position sense, and movement on the side of a spinal cord lesion, with loss of pain sensation on the other side. Caused by a lesion limited to one side of spinal cord.

C

Carotid Stenosis

A narrowing of the carotid arteries, usually caused by the build-up of fatty substances and cholesterol deposits called plaque.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

A condition caused by compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel, characterized especially by discomfort and disturbances of sensation in the hand.

Cauda Equina Syndrome

Sufficient pressure on the nerves in the low back to produce multiple nerve root irritation and commonly loss of bowel and bladder control.

Central Cord Syndrome

Most common of the incomplete traumatic spinal cord syndromes characterized by motor impairment that is proportionately greater in the upper limbs than in the lower, with bladder dysfunction and a variable degree of sensory loss below the level of the cord lesion.

Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

A medical condition in which the water-like fluid produced in the brain that circulates and protects the brain and spinal cord.

Chordoma

A rare, maligant tumor that usually occurs in the spine and base of the skull and grows fairly slowly. It can spread to other organs, usually the lungs.

Coccyalgia

Pain in the coccyx, or tail bone, which forms the lowest part of the spine.

Congenital Dermal Sinus

A scaly, multi-layered channel of tissue found along the body’s midline anywhere between the nasal bridge and the tailbone.

Cushing’s Disease

A condition which occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol for a long time.

Cysts

A closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared to the nearby tissue, which may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material.

D

Degenerative Disc Disease

Most patients with degenerative disc disease will experience low-level but continuous back pain that will occasionally intensify and can become severe.

Diastematomyelia

Congenital defect associated with spina bifida in which the spinal cord is split in half by bony spicules or fibrous bands, each half being surrounded by a dural sac.

Discitis

Nonbacterial inflammation of an intervertebral disc or disc space.

Disc Space Infection

Infection in the space normally occupied by an intervertebral disc.

Dislocations

Displacement of an organ or any part; specifically disturbance or disarrangement of the normal relation of the bones entering the formation of a joint.

Dysesthesia

A condition in which a disagreeable sensation is produced by ordinary touch, temperature or movement.

Dysplastic

Congenital abnormalities of the arch of the sacrum or the arch of L-5 that permit the slipping to occur.

Dystonia Musculorm Deformans

An affliction occurring especially in children, marked by muscular contractions producing distortions of the spine and hips.

E

Edema/Swelling

An excessive accumulation of fluid generally in the small spaces that surround the body’s tissues and organs.

F

Facet Arthropathy

A degenerative disease affecting the facet joint.

Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a chronic muscular pain syndrome, which may first appear as back pain.

Fibromyositis

Chronic inflammation of a muscle with an overgrowth, or hyperplasia, of the connective tissue.

Foreign Object Removal

The removal of potentially dangerous objects or substances in the body that have been introduced from the outside.

Functional Scoliosis

Any scoliosis that is caused by leg length or other functional disorder and not by a primary curvature of the spine.

G

GerminomaSpine

A specific type of germ cell tumor that is usually, but not always, malignant.

Glioblastoma Multiforme

A general term for malignant forms of astrocytoma.

H

Hemangioblastomas

A benign tumor consisting of a mass of blood vessels.

Hematoma

A blood clot.

Hematomyelia

Effusion of blood (hemorrhage) into the substance of the spinal cord.

Hemifacial Spasms

A rare neuromuscular disease characterized by irregular, involuntary muscle contractions (spasms) on one side of the face.

Hemiplegia

Paralysis of one side of the body.

Herniated Disc

A herniated disc occurs when the inner gel in the disc leaks out and puts pressure upon a spinal nerve, often leading to leg pain or arm pain.

Heterotopic Bone Formation

The process by which bone tissue forms outside of the skeleton.

Hydromyelia

Expansion of the spinal cord due to increased size of the central canal of the cord which is filled with cerebral spinal fluid.

Hyperhidrosis

The condition characterized by abnormally increased sweating/perspiration, in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature.

I

Infection

The invasion of a host organism’s bodily tissues by disease-causing organisms, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce.

J

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

Generalized inflammatory joint disease in children.

L

Leg Pain

When the nerves exiting the spine in the lower back are impinged, the pain may extend down the leg as a general pain, tingling, numbness, or weakness.

Leptomeningitis

Inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.

Leptomeningopathy

Disease of the arachnoid or pia matter of the brain and spinal cord.

Lower Back Pain

A common musculoskeletal symptom that may be either acute or chronic. It may be caused by a variety of diseases and disorders that affect the lumbar spine. Low back pain is often accompanied by sciatica, which is pain that involves the sciatic nerve and is felt in the lower back, the buttocks, and the backs of the thighs.

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

A medical condition in which the spinal canal narrows and compresses the spinal cord and nerves at the level of the lumbar vertebra.

M

Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumor

A soft tissue sarcoma that forms from peripheral nerve sheath cells or from noncancerous (benign) peripheral nerve sheath tumors called neurofibromas.

Marginal Osteophytes

Excess bone formation at the margin of the vertebral body; spondylosis.

Meningocele

A protrusion of the coverings of the spinal cord or brain through a defect in the skull or vertebral column. May be congenital or acquired.

Meralgia Paresthetica

Numbness or pain in the outer thigh not caused by injury to the thigh, but by injury to a nerve that extends from the thigh to the spinal column.

Movement Disorders

A group of diseases and syndromes affecting the ability to produce and control movement.

Multiple Sclerosis

An inflammatory disease in which the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord are damaged, leading to demyelination and scarring as well as a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms.

Myalgia

Muscular pain.

Myasthenia

Loss of nerve strength caused by some disorder of the spinal cord.

Myealgia

Pain in the spinal cord.

Myelapoplexy

Loss of nerve strength caused by some disorder of the spinal cord.

Myelomalacia

Softening of the spinal cord.

Myeloparalysis

Spinal paralysis.

Myelopathy

Any functional or pathologic disturbance in the spinal cord.

Myeloplegia

Spinal paralysis.

Myeloscelerosis

Hardening of the spinal cord.

Myelomeningocele

A protrusion of the spinal cord and its coverings through a defect in the vertebral column. Herniation of cord and meninges through a defect in the vertebral column.

N

Neurofibroma

Fibrous tumor of a nerve, which may affect a nerve root and thus give the appearance of herniated disc disease.

Neck Pain

The neck can be afflicted with spinal stenosis, herniated disc, osteoarthritis, degenerative disc disease, and also by muscle strain, whiplash or other conditions.

Neurofibroma

Fibrous tumor of a nerve, which may affect a nerve root and thus give the appearance of herniated disc disease.

Neurofibromatosis

A familial condition characterized by developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles and skin, marked by numerous tumors that grow on nerve tissue.

Neuropathy

Any functional or pathologic disturbance in the peripheral nervous system.

O

Osteoarthritis

Arthritis characterized by erosion of articular cartilage, either primary or secondary to trauma or other conditions, which becomes soft, frayed, and thinned with eburnation of subchondral bone and outgrowths of marginal osteophytes.

Osteoporosis

Most fractures in the spine are caused by osteoporosis, which is a condition in which bones lose structural integrity.

P

Paraplegia

Paralysis of the lower part of the body including the legs.

Paravertebral Muscle Spasm

Spasm in the muscles on either side of the spinous processes (midline of the back); the term may be used to describe a physical finding or improperly used to define a disease process.

Phantom Limb Pain

The sensation that an amputated or missing limb (even an organ, like the appendix) is still attached to the body and is moving appropriately with other body parts.

Piriformis Syndrome

A clinical diagnosis based on complaints of pain and abnormal sensations in the buttocks region with extension into the hips and posterior thigh as would be seen in sciatica.

Post-Therapeutic Neuralgia

A complication of shingles, which is caused by the chickenpox (herpes zoster) virus. Most cases of shingles clear up within a few weeks. But if the pain lasts long after the shingles rash and blisters have disappeared, it’s called postherpetic neuralgia.

Pott’s Disease

Tuberculosis of the spine, usually in the lower thoracic segments.

Pregnancy and Back Pain

The bodily changes during pregnancy make back pain a common development. Certain treatments are recommended for most pregnant women to prevent back pain.

Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

A disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph tissue of the brain and/or spinal cord.

Pseudarthrosis

A pathologic condition in which failure of callus formation following pathologic fracture through an area of deossification in a weight-bearing long bone results in formation of a false joint.

Pseudoclauducation

Painful cramps that are not caused by peripheral artery disease but rather by spinal, neurologic, or orthopedic disorders, such as spinal stenosis, diabetic neuropathy, or arthritis.

R

Radiculopathy

Disease of the nerve roots in or near the spinal canal as a result of direct pressure from a disc, or inflammation of the nerve roots due to disc or spinal joint disease.

Retrolisthesis

Posterior displacement of the vertebra on the one below.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Generalized inflammatory joint disease.

Ruptured Disc

See Herniated Disc.

S

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

The joint between the base of the spine and the hip does not normally have much movement, but any change in the joint may cause lower back pain and/or leg pain.

Sciatica

The sciatic nerve exits the lumbar spine and carries information between the brain and the legs. When a lower back problem affects the sciatic nerve, pain can radiate down the leg and into the foot.

Scoliosis

An abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine, known as scoliosis, develops mostly in adolescents, but can also be a byproduct of aging and arthritis.

Scoliorachitis

Disease of the spine caused by rickets; abnormal bone mineralization.

Spasticity

A feature of altered skeletal muscle performance in muscle tone involving hypertonia; it is also referred to as an unusual “tightness,” stiffness, and/or “pull” of muscles.

Spina Bifida

A congenital defect of the spine marked by the absence of a portion of the spine.

Spinal Cord Injury

Any injury to the spinal cord that is caused by trauma instead of disease. Both the symptoms and severity can vary widely, depending upon the nature and location of the injury.

Spinal Cord Lipomas and Lipomyelomeningoceles

A spinal cord lipoma is fat within the normally positioned spinal cord without any skin or bony abnormalities. A lipomyelomeningocele is a lesion present at birth that is associated with spina bifida (congenital failure of the spinal bones to close).

Spinal Deformities

Besides scoliosis, there are other conditions which may cause a change in the normal structure of the spine.

Spinal Infections

This is caused when an infection or illness somewhere else in the body is carried through the blood stream into a disc in the spinal column.

Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a condition in which parts of the spine narrows and can lead to compression of a spinal nerve or the spinal cord in the neck.

Spinal Tumor

A tumor in the spine can cause pressure on the nerves in the spine similar to many other spinal conditions.

Spondylarthritis

Arthritis of the spine.

Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis occurs when one vertebra in the spine slips forward over the one below it, causing lower back pain and/or leg pain. It most commonly occurs in the lower levels of the spine.

Spondylolysis

Displacement of one vertebrae over another with fracture of a posterior portion of the vertebra. A defect in the neural arch between the superior and inferior facets of vertebrae without separation at the defect and therefore no displacement of the vertebrae. It may be unilateral or bilateral and is usually due to a developmental defect but may be secondary to a fracture.

Spondylomalacia

Softening of vertebrae; Kümmell disease.

Sports and Spine Injuries

Certain sports and activities are likely to cause or worsen back pain due to repetitive motions and added strain on the spine.

Sports-Related Head or Neck Injury

Injuries to the head or neck while playing in sports.

Sprains and Strains

Strains occur when muscle fibers are overstretched or even torn. Sprains are the tears in the ligaments (ligaments are thick bands of connective tissue that connect the bones) and sometimes can even be severe enough to cause the ligaments to detach from the bone.

T

Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome

A group of neurological disorders that relate to malformations of the spinal cord, including tight filum terminale, lipomeningomyelocele, split cord malformations, dermal sinus tracts, dermoids, and cystoceles.

Torticollis

A contraction, often spasmodic, of the muscles of the neck, chiefly those supplied by the spinal accessory nerve; the head is drawn to one side and usually rotated so that the chin points to the other side.

U

Ulnar Nerve Entrapment

A condition where the ulnar nerve becomes trapped or pinched due to some physiological abnormalities.

Upper Back Pain

Pain from the thoracic spine is less common than from the cervical spine (neck) or lumbar spine (lower back). Muscular issues and joint dysfunctions are the most common problems in upper back.

V

Vertebral Compression Fractures

This occurs when the bones of the spine become compressed due to trauma and then fracture.

Vertebral Osteomyelitis

A rare bone infection concentrated in the spinal region.

 

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